References and Acknowledgments

  1. NOTE: Some sources may not be suitable for readers of all ages.
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  241. How Did Birds First Take Off? (
  242. How Early Humans' Quest for Food Stoked the Flames of Evolution (
  243. How Exercise Changes Fat and Muscle Cells (
  244. How Exercise Changes Our DNA (
  245. How Hamilton Recasts Thomas Jefferson as a Villain (
  246. How Lizards Got Their Big Feet (
  247. How Nicolas Steno Changed the Way We See the World, Literally (
  248. How the Royal Ontario Museum Represents 100 Years of Architecture ( _the _royal _ontario _museum _represents _100 _years _of _architecture.html)
  249. How to Fossilize a Brain (
  250. How to Tell a Pterodactyl's Sex: Dino-Era Riddle Solved by New Fossil Find (
  251. Hox Genes in Development: The Hox Code (
  252. A Huge Mouth and No Anus — This Could Be Our Earliest Known Ancestor (
  253. Human Ancestor "Family" May Not Have Been Related (
  254. Human DNA, the Ultimate Spot for Secret Messages (Are Some There Now?) (
  255. The Human Genome (
  256. The Human Phenome Project (
  257. Humanity's Ancestors Nearly Died Out, Genetic Study Suggests (
  258. Humans Didn't Evolve from a Single Ancestral Population (
  259. Hutton's Debt to Browne? (
  260. Hydra DNA Reveals There's More Than One Way to Regrow a Head (
  261. Hyrtl Skull Collection (
  262. An Ice-Age Squirrel Found by Gulag Prisoners Gets Its Scientific Due (
  263. If These Teeth Could Talk ( _reports/science _nation/teethtalk.jsp)
  264. Iguanas and Lizards ( _galapagos/reptiles/)
  265. In a Tooth, DNA From Some Very Old Cousins, the Denisovans (
  266. In Cave in Borneo Jungle, Scientists Find Oldest Figurative Painting in the World (
  267. In Darwin's Footsteps (
  268. Independence Day Fossil: Dippy the Star-Spangled Dinosaur (
  269. "Inestimable Importance": 500-Year-Old Cache of Pressed Flowers Reveals New Secrets (
  270. In Pursuit of an Underwater Menagerie (
  271. The Internet in a Cup (
  272. Institute for Historical Biology (
  273. In the Classification Kingdom, Only the Fittest Survive (
  274. Islam's Darwin Problem ( _the _muslim _world _creationism _is _on _the _rise/)
  275. It's Official: Stunning Fossil Is a New Dinosaur Species (
  276. IUCN Redlist: Polyommatus coridon (
  277. James Watson Won't Stop Talking About Race (
  278. Joachim Barrande ( _Barrande)
  279. John Phillips in the 1911 Edition Encyclopedia ( _JOHN.htm)
  280. Joseph Hooker, Botanist to the Survey (
  281. Key to Function of Dinosaur Crests Found in Brain Structure ( _summ.jsp?cntn _id=112409
  282. Kew, History and Heritage (
  283. Kircher's Cosmos: On Athanasius Kircher (
  284. La Chapelle-aux-Saints (
  285. A Legend of Snakes and Stones (
  286. Letters of Alfred Russel Wallace Go Online (
  287. Lewis and Clark: Inside the Corps (
  288. Library of Congress (
  289. Lies, Damned Lies, Statistics, and Probability of Abiogenesis Calculations (
  290. Life and Death in the Jurassic Seas of Dorset, Southern England (
  291. The Life and Legacy of the Dinosaur Baron (
  292. Life on Earth Likely Started 4.1 Billion Years Ago, Much Earlier than Scientists Thought (
  293. Linda Hall Library (
  294. Linnaeus's Asian Elephant was Wrong Species (
  295. The Lister Copperplates (
  296. Live Giant Squid Caught on Camera (
  297. Living African Group Discovered to be the Most Populous Humans over the Last 150,000 Years (
  298. Long-Lost Relative of Whales Found? (
  299. A Lost-and-Found Nomad Helps Solve the Mystery of a Swimming Dinosaur (
  300. Louvre: Frieze of Griffins (
  301. Mammoth Hair Offers New Style of Research (
  302. Man-Sized Sea Scorpion Claw Found (
  303. Maria Sibylla Merian and Daughters (
  304. Maria Sibylla Merian: Why Her Art Changed How We See Nature (
  305. Marie Stopes Charity Changes Name in Break with Campaigner's View on Eugenics (
  306. Maropeng Official Visitor Centre (
  307. Marxism and Dinosaurs: The Fanciful Art of Gerhard Ernest Untermann (
  308. Mary Anning, FRS? (
  309. Mary Anning's Ichthyosaur, Sedgwick Museum (
  310. Mary Leakey: Unearthing History (
  311. Massive New Animal Species Discovered in Half-Billion-Year-Old Burgess Shale (
  312. Master of Monticello (
  313. Massive Genetic Study Shows How Humans Are Evolving (
  314. The Meaning of Fossils in the New Age of Humans | Scott Wing ( _27BSgRNK _c)
  315. Medieval Art: A Resource for Educators ( Educators/Publications%20 for%20 Educators/Medieval.pdf)
  316. Medieval Sourcebook: Adelard of Bath: The Impact of Muslim Science Preface to His Very Difficult Natural Questions (
  317. Meet the World's Tiniest Snail (
  318. Metal Solves Mystery of Flames that Inspired Homer (
  319. Microbes that Gave Rise to All Plants and Animals Became Multicellular 1.6 Billion Years Ago, Tiny Fossils Reveal (
  320. Modern Human Genomes Reveal Our Inner Neanderthal (
  321. Moment of Truth (
  322. Models and Fossils Face Off Over One of the Hottest Periods in Earth's History (
  323. Monsters of the Past (
  324. "Monstrous" Mastodon Molar (
  325. Most Influential British Women in the History of Science (
  326. The Murderous, Sometimes Sexy History of the Mermaid (
  327. Museum is Displaying Treasures of the Other Evolution Pioneer (
  328. Museum of New Zealand (
  329. Mushrooms, Magma and Love in a Time of Science (
  330. The Mysterious Deep Time Movements of Snails (
  331. Mysterious Fossils Find Place on the Tree of Life (
  332. Mysterious "Tully Monster" Fossil Just Got More Mysterious (
  333. Mystery Humans Spiced Up Ancients' Rampant Sex Lives ( _id=NEWS-20131119)
  334. Mysticism and Rudely-Shaped Rocks: Why 17th-Century Palaeontology is Worth Revisiting (
  335. Mythic Creatures (
  336. National Fossil Day (
  337. National Gallery of Art: Arcimboldo, 1526-1593: Nature and Fantasy (
  338. National Science Foundation: A Tour of the Cell (
  339. Natural History Museum, London (
  340. A Natural Selection (
  341. Neanderthals and the Dead (
  342. Neanderthals Built Cave Structures — And No One Knows Why (
  343. Neanderthals Made Leather-Working Tools Like Those in Use Today (
  344. Neanderthals Wore Eagle Talons as Jewellery (
  345. New "Chicken From Hell" Dinosaur Discovered (
  346. New Dinosaur Species Found in Antarctica (
  347. New Discovery at Happisburgh: The Earliest Human Footprints Outside Africa ( _projects/all _current _projects/featured _project _happisburgh/happisburgh _footprints.aspx)
  348. New Fanged Dwarf Dinosaur from Southern Africa Ate Plants ( _releases/2012-10/pp-nfd100112.php)
  349. New Findings Suggest that Dinosaurs Had Lice (
  350. New Fossils Reveal a Strange-Looking Neanderthal in Israel (
  351. New Instrument Dates Old Skeleton; "Little Foot" 3.67 Million Years Old (
  352. New Study Puts Dinosaur Noses in Their Place (
  353. Newly Discovered Fossil Species Named After Star Wars Starship (
  354. Newly Discovered Sea Creature was Once the Largest Animal on Earth (
  355. New Mexico's State Fossil (
  356. A New Picture of the Early Earth (
  357. A New Species of Early Human? Why We Should Be Cautious about New Fossil Footprint Findings (
  358. New Species of Multi-horned Dinosaurs Unearthed in Utah ( _summ.jsp?cntn _id=117745&org=NSF&from=news)
  359. The New Story of Humanity's Origins in Africa (
  360. NOAA Photo Library Treasures of the Library (
  361. NOVA: Ghost in Your Genes (
  362. NOVA: Judgment Day: Intelligent Design on Trial Program Transcript ( _id.html)
  363. NOVA: What Darwin Never Knew (
  364. Now: The Rest of the Genome (
  365. Ogre? Octopus? Blobologists Solve an Ancient Mystery (
  366. Oil Drillers Strike World's Deepest Dinosaur ( _060426 _dinos.html)
  367. Olaus Magnus - History of the Nordic Peoples - Illustrations with Comments (
  368. Olaus Magnus' Monstrous Creatures (
  369. Oldest Dinosaur Burrow Discovered ( _news/newsid _8144000/8144199.stm)
  370. The Oldest Giant Fossil Penguin ( _releases/2017-02/s-tof022817.php)
  371. Oldest Known Sponge Pushes Back Date for Key Split in Animal Evolution (
  372. Oldest Prehistoric Pelican Also Had Big Beak ( _news/newsid _8733000/8733503.stm)
  373. Oldest Rodent Cache Found — Filled with Fossil Nuts ( _031210 _fossilburrow.html)
  374. Ole Worm Returns: An Iconic 17th Century Curiosity Cabinet is Obsessively Recreated (
  375. One of the World's Most Famous Fossil Skulls, "Mrs Ples," is Actually a "Mr" (
  376. One Special Cell Can Revive a Flatworm on the Brink of Death (
  377. On Galápagos, Revealing the Blue-Footed Booby's True Colors (
  378. Our Male Ancestors Stayed Close to Home, While Females Wandered About (
  379. Oxford University Museum of Natural History: Edward Lhwyd (
  380. Oxford University Museum of Natural History: Robert Plot (
  381. Oxygen May Be Cause Of First Snowball Earth (
  382. Painting by Numbers (
  383. Paleobiology Research Group, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol (
  384. Paleontologists Reconstruct a Monster Frog (
  385. Paleontology: Gobi's Treasure of Bones (,8816,836115,00.html)
  386. Panel witgh a Griffin [Byzantine; Possibly from Greece or the Balkans] (2000.81) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art (
  387. The Patient Had Bone Cancer. The Diagnosis Arrived 240 Million Years Too Late. (
  388. Pendant in the Form of a Knotted Dragon [Eastern Zhou Dynasty; China] (1985.214.99) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art (
  389. Perfect Pterosaur Found in Fossil Egg (
  390. "Perfect Spot": Statue of Fossil Hunter Mary Anning Nears Unveiling (
  391. Petrified Puke Shows that Ancient Winged Reptiles Purged (
  392. Photosynthesis-Like Process Found in Insects (
  393. Piece of Skull Found in Greece "is Oldest Human Fossil Outside Africa" (
  394. Pigeon DNA Proves Darwin Right (
  395. Piltdown Man and the Dualist Contention (
  396. Pink Iguana Rewrites Family Tree (
  397. A Pioneer of Prehistory: Dorothy Garrod and the Caves of Mount Carmel ( _of _Prehistory.pdf)
  398. A Pioneering Woman of Science Re-Emerges after 300 Years (
  399. Plaque with Horned Lion-Griffins [Iran] (54.3.2) | Collections | The Metropolitan Museum of Art (
  400. Pliny the Elder (
  401. A Pregnant Mother's Diet May Turn the Genes Around (
  402. Prehistoric Bird Had Wings Like Nunchucks (
  403. Prehistoric Colors Preserved in Near-Perfect Beetle Fossils (
  404. Prehistoric Mammal Hair Found in Cretaceous Amber ( _news/newsid _8734000/8734883.stm)
  405. A Prehistoric Mammal with Blood Red Teeth (
  406. Princeton University Art Museum (
  407. Project Steve (
  408. Public Domain Review (
  409. The Puzzles and Pitfalls of Reconstructing Paraceratherium, the Largest Ever Land Mammal (
  410. Quaillike Creatures Were the Only Birds to Survive the Dinosaur-Killing Asteroid Impact (
  411. Race, Sex and the Trials of a Young Explorer (
  412. Rapid Evolution in Real Time (
  413. A Renaissance Painting Reveals How Breeding Changed Watermelons (
  414. Remembering Mary Leakey, the "Grande Dame of Archeology" (
  415. Researcher: Birds Hunted Ancient Man (
  416. Researcher Part of International Team to Protect Ancient Footprints (
  417. Researchers May Have Solved Origin-of-Life Conundrum (
  418. Reunion of Fossil Halves Splits Scientists (
  419. Reverse Engineering Birds' Beaks Into Dinosaur Bones (
  420. The Richest Man in the World: Andrew Carnegie (
  421. The Road to Fellowship – The History of Women and the Geological Society (
  422. Royal Archive Winners Prior to 1900 (
  423. Royal Society: Arabick Roots ( _Society _Content/exhibitions/arabick-science/2011-06-08-Arabick-Roots.pdf)
  424. "Rule-Breaking" Crab Fossils Have Weird Shrimp and Lobster Features (
  425. Rumphius, Georg Eberhard (1628-1702) (
  426. Sabretooth Tigers Hunted in Packs (
  427. Science Magazine Online Extra: Ardipithecus ramidus (
  428. Scientist Definitively Proves Existence of Hyper-Intelligent Mythical Octopus (
  429. Scientists Find Oldest Known Species of Sea Scorpion (
  430. Sea Creatures Began to Glow Half a Billion Years Ago (
  431. The Search for Genes Leads to Unexpected Places (
  432. Secrets of a Green Sahara (
  433. Secrets of the Dead: Black Death ( _plague/clues.html)
  434. Seeking a Missing Link, and a Mass Audience (
  435. Self Taught Scientists: Joan Wiffen (
  436. Shipping Timetables Debunk Darwin Plagiarism Accusations (
  437. Shrimp-Like Fossil Has Oldest Cardiovascular System Ever Found (,0,5819073.story)
  438. Siberian Fossils Were Neanderthals' Eastern Cousins, DNA Reveals (
  439. Signs of TB in Ancient Skull Support Theory on Vitamin D (
  440. Sinclair Oil Company, 1934-38 (
  441. The "Sistine Chapel of Evolution" is in New Haven, Connecticut (
  442. Skull Fossil Suggests Simpler Human Lineage (
  443. Skull Suggests Three Early Human Species were One (
  444. "Smart Genes" Prove Elusive (
  445. Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program (
  446. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History: What Does it Mean to be Human? (
  447. Smoke, Fire and Human Evolution (
  448. The Snake that Swallowed Dinosaurs (
  449. So Much for the Abominable Snowman (
  450. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (
  451. South Africa Vows to End Corruption. Are Its New Leaders Part of the Problem? (
  452. Spectacular Dinosaur Stomping Grounds Discovered Just Outside D.C. (
  453. Sponge-Like Fossil Could Be Earth's Earliest Known Animal (
  454. Spontaneous Generation and the Origin of Life (
  455. Stamp Seal and a Modern Impression: Unicorn or Bull and Inscription [Indus Valley] (49.40.1) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art (
  456. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Lucretius (
  457. Steve Darwin is Steve #1000 (
  458. Stolen Darwin Journals Returned to Cambridge University Library (
  459. Stressed-Out Plants Warn their Offspring (
  460. Stunning Fossil Reveals Prehistoric Baby Bird Caught in Amber (
  461. Subway Sleuth Clears Dinosaur of Cannibalism (
  462. Switching to Farming Made Human Joint Bones Lighter (
  463. Summaries of Papers by Dr Andrew R. Parker (
  464. A Surprisingly Simple Explanation for the Shape of Bird Eggs (
  465. Talk About an Ancient Mariner! Greenland Shark Is At Least 272 Years Old (
  466. Tanis: Fossil of Dinosaur Killed in Asteroid Strike Found, Scientists Claim (
  467. Tardigrades (Water Bears) (
  468. Team Claims it Has Found Oldest Fossils (
  469. Tennessee's "Monkey Bill" on Hold (
  470. Testing One's Metal (
  471. The Tetrapod Trackway, Valentia Island, Co Kerry, Ireland (
  472. There's No Such Thing as a "Pure" European — Or Anyone Else (
  473. These Rocks Made a 1,000-Mile Trek. Did Dinosaurs Carry Them? (
  474. This 508-Million-Year-Old Sea Predator Had a Remarkable Mouth ( _term=.a46a0504e951)
  475. This Ancient Beetle is the First New Species Discovered in Fossilized Poop (
  476. This Ancient Jawbone Suggests Our Species Left Africa 40,000 Years Earlier than Expected (
  477. This Ancient Reptile Was One of the Most Massive Creatures That Ever Lived (
  478. This Duck-Like Dinosaur Could Swim. That Isn't the Strangest Thing About It. (
  479. This Fossil Is a Freeze-Frame of a Mammal Fighting a Dinosaur (
  480. This Mysterious Ancient Structure Was Made of Mammoth Bones (
  481. This Woman of Science and Art Was a Pioneer, and Nearly Forgotten ( _story.html)
  482. Thomas Browne - Religion as Passion and Pastime Parts 1 and 2 ( and
  483. Three Cheers for Burgess Shale's Newest Oddball Animal, a Worm with Waving "Arms" (
  484. The Thunder Lizard Returns - Brontosaurus Resurrected ( _btn _fb)
  485. Tibetans Inherited High-Altitude Gene from Ancient Human (
  486. Tiny Chinese Seaweed is Oldest Green Plant Fossil Ever Found (
  487. Tiny Pterosaur Claims New Perch on Reptile Family Tree (
  488. Tiny Sea Creatures Upend Notion of How Animals' Nervous Systems Evolved (
  489. Tiny Shells May be Oldest Known Beads (
  490. Tokummia, a New Fossil Species from the Burgess Shale, Traces Origin of Ants, Millipedes and Lobsters (
  491. Tooth of an Ancient Girl Fills Gap in Human Family Tree (
  492. Topsell's Historie of Foure-Footed Beastes | University of Houston Digital Library ( _collection.php?CISOROOT=/p15195coll18)
  493. Transforming the Alchemists (
  494. Triassic Skulls Unearthed in Greenland Reveal "Cold Bone" Dinosaur (
  495. Trilobite Note (
  496. Trilobite was Ancient Snack Food (
  497. Tully Monster, Illinois' Great Fossil Mystery, Solved (
  498. Tuskless Elephants Escape Poachers, but May Evolve New Problems (
  499. Twin Fossil Find Adds Twist to Human Evolution (
  500. Two Dinosaurs from Africa Give Clues to Continents' Split ( and
  501. Types of Mankind ( _navlinks _s)
  502. Tyrannosaurus rex Hunted for Live Prey. (
  503. Unbound (
  504. Understanding Race (
  505. Under the Sea, a Missing Link in the Evolution of Complex Cells (
  506. The Unexpected Origin of Fingers (
  507. Unicorn in Captivity, The [South Netherlandish] (37.80.6). In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000—. (October 2006)
  508. United States Geological Survey (
  509. University of California Museum of Paleontology (
  510. University of Wisconsin Digital Collections (
  511. Unlaid Egg Discovered in Ancient Bird Fossil (
  512. The Unsung Hero of Western Science (
  513. Untangling Rosalind Franklin's Role in DNA Discovery, 70 Years On (
  514. USDA: Drosera rotundifolia ( _002 _ahp.tif)
  515. The Very First Animal Appeared Amid an Explosion of DNA (
  516. The Victorians' Dinosaurs ( _Victorians _Dinosaurs _Gossen _GSL103.pdf)
  517. Wallace Online (
  518. Wallace100 (
  519. A Warning from Europe (
  520. Watching Bacteria Evolve, With Predictable Results (
  521. Water-Dwelling Dinosaur Breaks the Mould (
  522. The Wedge Strategy (
  523. Wellesley 207.00x (Fall 2013) - Introduction to Human Evolution (
  524. Whale "Missing Link" Discovered (
  525. What Ancient "Chewing Gum" Can Tell Us About Life 5,700 Years Ago (
  526. What Can Fossils Tell Us about Early Human Diets? (
  527. What Discovery of Oldest Human Poop Reveals About Neanderthals' Diet (
  528. What's the Hottest the Earth's Ever Been? (
  529. When Dinosaurs Ruled the Earth, Mammals Took to the Skies (
  530. When Triceratops Was a Giant Bison (
  531. When Trilobites Ruled the World (
  532. Where Did All the Flowers Come From? (
  533. Where Did Animals With Tail Weapons Go? Here's a Back Story (
  534. Where NASA Put a Parking Lot, Dinosaurs and Mammals Once Crossed Paths (
  535. Which Dinosaur is the Biggest? There's a New Contender — and It's Alarmingly Large. (
  536. Whipping Up a Little Natural Selection (
  537. Whipple Library Books Blog (
  538. Who's Afraid of Darwin? (
  539. Who's the Cutest Little Tyrannosaur? Is It You? (
  540. Why Did the World's Biggest Ape Go Extinct? (
  541. Why Knights in Medieval Art Fought Snails (
  542. Why We Should Revive Erasmus Darwin's Poetry (
  543. Wikipedia: Dover Trial ( _v. _Dover _Area _School _District)
  544. The Wild Experiment That Showed Evolution in Real Time (
  545. The Woman Who Shaped the Study of Fossil Brains (
  546. The World's First Flower May Have Looked Like This (
  547. World's Oldest Art Identified in Half-Million-Year-Old Zigzag (
  548. World's Oldest Homo sapiens Fossils Found in Morocco (
  549. Worm's Jawbone: How a Zoological Curiosity Became a Historical Treasure (
  550. You Thought Modern Life Was Bad. This Neanderthal Child Was Eaten by a Giant Bird. (
  551. Your Vestigial Muscles Try to Pivot Your Ears Like a Cat's ( _and _science/science/2015/10/vestigial _muscles _try _to _pivot _your _ears _like _a _dog _or _cat _does.html)
  552. Yorkshire Philosophical Society (
  553. Zofia Kielan-Jaworowska (
  554. "Zombie Worms" Found off Sweden (
  1. Acknowledgments

  2. A special thanks to all of the following:
  3. Somerville Anderson of Glasgow for generous support over many years
  4. Glenn Branch of the National Center for Science Education for always-helpful information
  5. Lyle Bush for lots of good advice
  6. Durant Carpenter for helping me scan documents and save money, and to whom I will no longer be civil since I swallowed my pride and said thank you
  7. Joe Nigg for insights on historic monster lore
  8. Fellow Galápagos travelers Bruce Gerwe and Ann Dibble for sharing their wonderful photographs
  9. Don Brandborg for Dmanisi fossil and tool photographs
  10. Jean-Bernard Caron of the Royal Ontario Museum, for taking time out of his busy schedule to talk to me about Earth's earliest animals
  11. Francis Thackeray of the Evolutionary Studies Institute at the University of the University of Witwatersrand, Stephany Potze of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, and Charles Musiba of the University of Colorado-Denver, for sharing their expertise on human origins, and for letting me see some of the world's coolest fossils
  12. Ted and Kari Scambos for being fun, reliable travel buddies in South Africa, and for helping me ask good questions
  13. Scott Wing of the Smithsonian Institution for sharing his insights on plants, and past and future climates
  14. Richard Fortey of the Natural History Museum, London, for talking to me about trilobites
  15. James Hayward of Andrews University for his article and excellent references for more information
  16. Carl Lindstrand for his suggestion of and information on the skvader
  17. Bryan Small for his review of the initial timeline draft and helpful suggestions
  18. Lou Taylor and Becky Greben for helpful biographical recommendations
  19. Hannah Moss for a heads-up about that early-20th-century serpentine take on Diplocaulus
  20. Fr. Tom Widner of the U.S. Jesuit Conference for tracking down leads on Athanasius Kircher

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