Leonardo da Vinci
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From Leonardo: Art and Science edited by Claudio Pescio

In one of his notebooks, Leonardo da Vinci saw fit to copy lines from Dante's Inferno:

Lying in a featherbed will not bring you fame, nor staying beneath the quilt, and he who uses up his life without achieving fame leaves no more vestige of himself on earth than smoke in the air or foam upon the water.

It sounds a little surprising that Leonardo feared obscurity, but he had to cope with certain disadvantages early on. Born out of wedlock in 1452, he had humble beginnings. His mother was a peasant girl, and though she may have cared for him as a baby, she married and started a new family while he was still a little boy. Some historians speculate that this unusual domestic arrangement caused him to feel lifelong resentment, though there's some indication that she spent her final years with him. His father was a successful notary, but Leonardo was barred from a similarly respectable profession. Yet although it was constraining, his illegitimacy was also liberating. He was raised largely by his nature-loving uncle, and the boy's awkward station in life may have freed him from expectations of a traditional career. The occupations of artist and self-styled inventor were not too respectable for an illegitimate youth, to the great benefit of the Renaissance.

Unlike many of his contemporaries, Leonardo had virtually no formal education, and he developed an abiding contempt for received learning. He eventually realized that his lack of Latin shut him off from other intellectuals, and he launched a self-education program. As a result, his famed notebooks include — along with ground-breaking anatomical illustrations and flying-machine diagrams — careful inflections of Latin verbs.

Besides Leonardo's lack of a formal education, his "peasant manners" may explain the reluctance of Florentine patron of the arts, Lorenzo de Medici, to use him as a cultural ambassador. On the other hand, the dandy Leonardo fussed about his appearance — a trait conspicuously absent from his rival Michelangelo — and his flamboyance was somewhat at odds with the restrained culture of Florence, the city of his youth. He eventually left Florence for Milan, where he both found a patron and spent some of the most productive years of his life. His good fortune lasted only a little while before the French invaded. After that, Leonardo adopted a fairly nomadic lifestyle, frequently working as a military advisor despite his own distaste for warfare. He lived and worked for a time in Rome, where he enjoyed the patronage of Lorenzo de Medici's sons, Pope Leo X (for whom he drained marshes) and Giuliano. There he tolerated the presence of his prickly rival Michelangelo and poked around the fossil shells of Monte Mario. Giuliano's death, however, left Leonardo looking for a patron once more. At the age of 64, he embarked on the longest journey of his life: to France. There he spent his final years.

Leonardo da Vinci lived at a time of amazing cultural change. Gutenberg invented movable type when Leonardo was a child. When the Renaissance genius was born, Europe had roughly 30,000 printed books; by the time he reached middle age, it had an estimated 8 million. In a way, Leonardo's own library mirrored this explosion. When he moved from Florence to Milan, the savant's packing list didn't mention a single book. Months after arriving in Milan, he owned five. Shortly after the turn of the 16th century, he owned well over 100. Unfortunately, though he eventually owned quite a few books, he wrote few of them. He failed to complete many of the projects he started and worse, because he was paranoid about his ideas being stolen, he kept his copious notes to himself. After his death, many of his notebooks were lost, scattered, and pieced back together in haphazard fashion.

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From The Naming of Names by Anna Pavord

Among Leonardo's many scientific achievements were his discoveries in anatomy. Besides artistic talent, he possessed the stomach to dissect. His animal dissections enabled him to produce impressive anatomical diagrams, yet he spent at least part of his life as a vegetarian, out of respect for our furry and feathered friends. His relationship with the animal world was complicated. The art historian Vasari related how Leonardo once converted a hapless lizard to a "monster," outfitting it with wings and horns made from parts of other reptiles. To complete the picture, he painted the poor thing with mercury.

Contrary to popular belief, human dissections weren't illegal in Leonardo da Vinci's day, but they weren't very common, either. They typically had to be conducted in the wintertime when corpses decomposed a little less quickly. Being a simple craftsman, Leonardo couldn't easily acquire human corpses, although that situation changed when he was a renowned artist in his 50s. To better understand fetal development, he dissected a pregnant mother. To better understand anatomical changes over time, he simultaneously dissected and old man and a two-year-old. In 1489, he managed to acquire a human skull, which he cut into sections to better examine its internal structure. Though his understanding of the respiratory system improved little upon medieval knowledge, and he clung to common misconceptions about the human brain, his studies of skeletal and muscle tissue, brain anatomy, and digestive and reproductive systems eventually advanced human anatomical understanding to a new level. One of his more ingenious feats was to build a glass model of an aortic valve. Interestingly, he felt that the similar appearance of branching blood vessels, branching stems, and mingling tributaries weren't just coincidence; they actually were fundamentally the same. In that same spirit of unified microcosm/macrocosm, he investigated geology.

Around 1490, some Milanese peasants brought Leonardo a bag of fossil shells. For the next quarter of a century, he pondered the shells' meaning, and apparently visited the site where they had been collected. He also bought cockles from a Florentine fish peddler and gave them a home in an oblong container with sand and sea water. No cockle moved more than 8 feet a day. That pace, he noted, couldn't get a cockle from the Adriatic Sea to Lombardy in 40 days and 40 nights. After this and other studies, he not only doubted that Noah's flood had carried the fossils to their present locations, he also questioned whether there had even been such a worldwide deluge. He also suspected a much older earth than what a literal reading of the Bible indicated.

As to those who say that shells existed for a long time and were born at a distance from the sea, from the nature of the place and of the cycles, which can influence a place to produce such creatures — to them it may be answered: such an influence could not place the animals all on one line, except those of the same sort and age; and not the old with the young, nor some with an operculum and others without their operculum, nor some broken and others whole, nor some filled with sea-sand and large and small fragments of other shells inside the whole shells which remained open; nor the claws of crabs without the rest of their bodies . . . And the deluge cannot have carried them there, because things that are heavier than water do not float on the water.

In fact, Leonardo's interpretation of an ancient earth wasn't that unusual for his time. Belief in an ancient planet was more widespread in his day than a 21st-century reader might assume, and a biblically inspired young planet just several thousand years old didn't become the norm among naturalists until the 17th century.

Leonardo da Vinci rejected the notion that fossils were just "sports of nature," understanding instead that they belonged to once-living organisms. He noted that fossil shells appeared in several different horizons in the mountains, meaning they could not have all been deposited in a single deluge, nor could slow-moving mollusks reach the mountains in the biblical flood's short duration. In studying the fossils, he noticed that they were full of borings — evidence of ancient behavior. In different rock layers, he detected worm burrows in ancient layers of mud. Leonardo not only discerned ancient behavior, but also uncovered ancient environments.

Besides being a genius, Leonardo da Vinci had another advantage: living in the Mediterranean. The fossil beds in this region were relatively young, similar in appearance to modern-day analogues, and in close proximity to them — three things that would facilitate comparison. The years that Leonardo devoted to studying the behavior of water — he was fascinated by the destructive power of floods — also helped him elucidate how sediments are deposited.

The streams and rivers move different kinds of matter which are of varying degrees of gravity, and they are moved further from their position in proportion as they are lighter, and will remain nearer to the bottom in proportion as they are heavier, and will be carried a greater distance when driven by water of greater power. . . . When a river flows out from among mountains it deposits a great quantity of large stones in its gravelly bed, and these stones will retain some part of their angles and side; and as it proceeds on its course it carries with it lesser stones with angles more worn away, and so the large stones become smaller; and farther on it deposits first coarse and then fine gravel.

Unfortunately, because his notebooks were not published, his insights on these processes had little influence on Renaissance science. Publication might have had a significant effect. He offered an early theory of plate tectonics. His illustrations comparing human and animal anatomy as well as expressions of anger in humans, horses and lions suggest that he understood how much people have in common with our fellow animals. Perhaps most interesting of all, he may have formulated a vague notion of evolution.

Nature, being inconstant and taking pleasure in creating and continually producing new forms, because she knows that her terrestrial materials are thereby augmented, is more ready and more swift in her creating than is time in his destruction.

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